Physics Timeline 1961 – 1980

Dates Characters Theories and discoveries
1961 Sheldon Glashow Introduces neutral intermediate boson of electro-weak interactions
1961 Jeoffrey Goldstone Theory of massless particles in spontaneous symmetry breaking (Goldstone boson)
1961 Gell-Mann and Ne’eman The eightfold way, SU(3) octet symmetry of hadrons
1961 Robert Dicke Weak anthropic principle
1961 Robert Hofstadter Nucleons have an internal structure
1961 Ghiorso, Sikkeland, Larsh, Latimer Element 103, lawrencium
1961 Edward Ohm Prior detection of CMBR, but not identified
1961 Edward Lorenz Chaos theory
1961 Yuri Gagarin First man in space
1961 Geoffrey Chew Nuclear democracy and the bootstrap model
1961 Tulio Regge Simplicial lattice general relativity
1962 Gell-Mann and Ne’eman Prediction of Omega minus particle
1962 Leith and Upatnieks First hologram
1962 Giacconi, Gursky, Paolini, Rossi Detection of cosmic X-rays
1962 Brian Josephson Theory of Jesephson effect
1962 Lederman, Steinberger, Schwartz Evidence for more than one type of neutrino
1962 Hogarth Proposes relation between cosmological and thermodynamic arrows of time
1962 Thomas Gold Time-symmetric universe
1962 Benoit Mandelbrot Fractal images
1963 Samios et al Baryon Omega minus found
1963 Philip Anderson Gauge theories can evade Goldstone theorem
1963 Roy Kerr Solution for a rotating black hole
1963 Schmidt, Greensite, Sandage Quasars are distant
1963 Nicola Cabibbo Weak mixing angle
1964 Brout, Englert, Higgs Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking
1964 Hoyle, Taylor, Zeldovich Big bang nucleosynthesis of helium
1964 Steven Weinberg Baryon number is probably not conserved
1964 Christenson, Cronin, Fitch, Turlay CP violation in weak interactions
1964 Gell-Mann, Zweig Quark theory of hadrons
1964 Murray Gell-Mann Current algebra
1964 Bjorken and Glashow Prediciton of SU(4) flavour symmetry and charm
1964 Roger Penrose Black holes must contain singularities
1964 Ginzburg, Doroshkevich, Novikov, Zel’dovich Black holes have no hair
1964 Salpeter and Zel’dovich Black holes power quasars and radio galaxies
1964 John Bell A quantum inequality which limits the possibilities for local hidden variable theories
1964 John Wheeler Foundations of canonical formulism for gravity
1964 soviets Element 104, rutherfordium
1964 Salam, Ward SU(2)xU(1) model of electro-weak unification
1964   X-ray source Cygnus X-1 discovered
1964 Thomas Kibble Higgs mechanism for Yang-Mills theory
1965 Greenberg, Han, Nambu SU(3) colour symmetry to explain statistics of quark model
1965 Zabusky and Kruskal Numerical studies of solitons
1965 Penzias and Wilson Detection of the cosmic background radiation
1965 Dicke, Peebles, Roll, Wilkinson Indentification of cosmic background radiation
1965 Rees and Sciama Quasars were more numerable in the past
1967 Steven Weinberg Electro-weak unification
1967 Bell and Hewish Pulsars
1967 Irwin Shapiro Radar measurment of relativistic time delays to Mercury
1967 John Wheeler Introduced the term “black hole”
1967 Andrei Sakharov Three criteria for cosmological abundance of matter over anti-matter
1967 soviets Element 105, dubnium
1968 Joseph Weber First attempt at a gravitational wave detector
1968 Brandon Carter Strong anthropic principle
1968 Gabriele Veneziano Dual resonance model for strong interaction, beginning of string theory
1968 James Bjorken Theory of scaling behavior in deep inelastic scattering
1968 Richard Feynman Scaling and parton model of nucleons
1969 Kendall, Friedman Taylor Deep inelastic scattering experiments find structure inside protons
1969 Ellis, Hawking & Penrose Singularity theorems for the big bang
1969 Roger Penrose Conjectures that singularities are hidden by cosmic censorship
1969 Donald Lynden-Bell Black hole at the centre of galactic nuclei
1969 Raymond Davis Solar neutrino detector
1969 Charles Misner Cosmological horizon problem revisited
1969 Robert Dicke Cosmological flatness problem
1969 Neil Armstrong First man on the moon
1969   First attempts to verify solar deflection of radio waves from quasars
1969 David Finkelstein Space-time code
1970 Claude Lovelace, Veneziano Amplitude has special properties in 26 dimensions
1970 Nambu, Nielsen, Susskind Realisation that the dual resonance model is string theory
1970 Goto, Hara, Nambu Action for bosonic string as area of world sheet
1970 Simon Van der Meer Stochastic cooling for particle beams
1970 Glashow, Iliopoulos, Maiani GIM mechanism and prediction of charm quark
1970 Stephen Hawking The surface area of a black holes event horizon always increases
1971 Kenneth Wilson The operator product expansion and the renormalisation group for the strong force
1971 Dimopolous, Fayet, Gol’fand, Lichtman Supersymmetry
1971 Ramond, Neveu, Schwarz String theory of bosons and fermions
with critical dimension 10
1971 ‘t Hooft, Veltman, Lee Renormalisation of elctro-weak model
1971 Roger Penrose Spin networks
1971 Bolton, Murdin Webster Cygnus X-1 identified as black hole candidate
1972 Jacob Bekenstein Black hole entropy
1972 Fritsch, Gell-Mann, Bardeen Quantum Chromodynamics
1972 Kirzhnits, Linde Electro-Weak phase transition
1972 Roger Penrose Twistors
1972 Salam, Pati SU(4)xSU(4) unification and proton decay
1972 Tom Bolton Cygnus X-1 identified as black hole
1973 Wess and Zumino Space-time supersymmetry
1973 Ostriker and Peebles Dark matter in galaxies
1973 CERN Evidence of weak neutral currents
1973 ‘t Hooft, Gross, Politzer, Wilczek, Coleman T of asymptotic freedom in non-abelian gauge theories
1973 Klebesadel, Strong, Olson Gamma Ray Bursts are cosmic
1973 Edward Tyron The universe as a quantum fluctuation
1974 Yoneya, Scherk, Schwarz Interpretation of string theory as a theory of gravity
1974 Ting and Richter Found J/psi, charmed quark
1974 Kenneth Wilson Lattice gauge theory
1974 Taylor and Hulse Binary pulsar and relativistic effects
1974 Kobayashi and Maskawa CKM mixing matrix; CP violation in weak interaction requires three generations
1974 Georgi and Glashow SU(5) as Grand Unified Theory and prediction of proton decay
1974 Georgi, Weinberg, Quinn Convergence of coupling constants at GUT scale
1974 ‘t Hooft, Okun, Polyakov Heavy magnetic monopoles exist in GUTs.
1974 Stephen Hawking Black hole radiation and thermodynamics
1974 soviets and americans Element 106, seaborgium
1975 Martin Perl Tau lepton
1975 Gail Hanson Quark jets
1975 Chincarini and Rood Lumpiness in galaxy distributions
1975 Unruh and Davies Acceleration radiation effect
1975 Mitchell Feigenbaum Universality in chaotic non-linear systems
1975 Belavin, Polyakov, Schwartz Tyupkin instantons in Yang-Mills theory
1976 Scherk, Gliozzi, Olive Supersymmetric string theory
1976 Deser, Freedman, Van Nieuwenhuizen, Ferrara, Zumino Supergravity
1976 Levine and Vessot Precision test of gravitational time dilation on rocket
1976 Gerard ‘t Hooft The instantons solution of the U(1) anomaly
1976 soviets Element 107, bohrium
1977 James Elliot Rings of Uranus
1977 Olive and Montenen Conjecture of elecro-magnetic duality
1977 Fermilab Bottom quark
1977 Klaus von Klitzing Quantum Hall effect
1977 Tifft, Gregory, Joeveer, Einasto, Thompson Clusters chains and voids in galaxy dustributions
1977 Berkley Dipole anisotropy on cosmic background radiation
1977 Leon Lederman Upsilon, bottom quark
1977 Gunn, Schramm, Steigman Cosmological constraints imply that there are only three light neutrinos
1978 James Christy Charon moon of Pluto
1978 Taylor and Hulse Evidence for gravitational radiation of binary pulsar
1978 Cremmer, Julia, Nahm, Scherk 11-dimensional supergravity
1978 Prescott, Taylor Elctro-weak effect on electron polarisation
1979 Voyager Rings of Jupiter
1979 John Preskill Cosmological monopole problem
1979 Walsh, Carswell, Weymann Quasar doubled by gravitational lensing
1979 DESY Evidence for gluons in hadron Jets
1979 Alexei Starobinsky Inflationary universe
1980 Frederick Reines Evidence of Neutrino oscillations
1980 DESY Measurement of gluon spin
1980 Alan Guth Inflationary early universe

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